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New PDF release: A Sociedade contra o Estado: investigações de antropologia

By Pierre Clastres

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Esta coletânea de onze artigos publicados entre 1962 e 1974 por Pierre Clastres (1934-1977) constitui um dos mais importantes trabalhos de antropologia política já divulgados. A obra reflete uma reviravolta nas ciências humanas, propiciada nos anos 1960 por autores franceses como Claude Lévi-Strauss, Michel Foucault e Gilles Deleuze. Clastres critica a razão política ocidental, aferrada em noções de dominação e subordinação, e afirma que a sociedade civil pode prescindir da figura do Estado. Para demonstrar essa tese audaz, o autor analisa a experiência de povos indígenas da América do Sul.

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Foi com os indios Guarani, senhores de toda a regiao, que se aliaram 01'1 Espanhois. Estes breves dados historicos explicam porque e que os Tupi-Guarani foram quase tao precocemente conhecidos como os Aztecas ou os Incas. Como eram constituidos os grupos locais, ou aldeias, dos Tupi-Guarani? Todos estes factos sao bem conheeidos, mas nao e inutil voltar a reeorda-Ios no essencial. troa oito grandes casas colectivas, as maloca, dispostas em torno de uma praga central reservada a vida religiosa e ritual.

As informag6es dos cronistas indicam claramente que as aldeias tupi-guarani eram de importancia desigua!. 000 pessoas por grupo, hipotese que, fazemos questao em sublinha-Io, e deliberadamente ba4xa. Esta avaliagao podera parecer enorme aos ame,ricanistas. ,Ela e confirmada nao apena... pelas anotagoes impressionistas dos primeiros viajantes - a multidao de crian. gas que formigam nas aldeias -, mas sobretudo pelas indicag6es numericas que fornecem. Frequentemente dizem respeito as actividades: militares dos Tupinamba.

Quantos Indios havia na America antes da chegada dos Brancos? A esta questao, desde ha muito que os americaniatas trouxeram respostas tao variadas quanto arbitranasporque desprovidas de todo 0 fundamento cientifico. Rivet. A. Rosenblatt, abordando pOI' seu turno 0 problema da populagil;o pre-colombiana dia. America, chega ao nilmCl'O de quase treze milh5es e quinhentos mil, dos quais seis milh5es setecentos e oitenta e cinquenta mil seriam da America dO' Sui. passa os 20 ro, e que portanto a sua investigagao e rigorosa, cientifica.

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A Sociedade contra o Estado: investigações de antropologia política by Pierre Clastres


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