By Cullen K.E. (ed.)
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00 mol of CCl4 is 154 g. 50 mol NaClO3. 0 amu. 5 amu. 0 amu. 5 amu. 00 mol of NH3? Solution: The formula states that there is 3 mol H for every 1 mol NH3. 5 Calculate the percent composition of MgSO3. Solution: One mole of the compound contains 1 mol of magnesium, 1 mol of sulfur, and 3 mol of oxygen atoms. 37 g/mol MgSO3. 31 g. 06 g. 00 g. 00 percent. 99 g would be oxygen. 2 percent O. 00 mol S . 0 g O Multiplying each value by 2 yields 2 mol K, 2 mol S, and 3 mol O, corresponding to K2S2O3.
34 BEGINNING CHEMISTRY Hydrogen atoms attain duets of electrons because the first shell is complete when it contains two electrons. Every group of electrons shared between two atoms constitutes a covalent bond. When one pair of electrons is involved, the bond is called a single bond. Sometimes it is necessary for two atoms to share more than one pair of electrons to attain octets. When two pairs of electrons unite two atoms, the bond is called a double bond. Three pairs of electrons shared between two atoms constitute a triple bond.
It would be inaccurate to speak of a molecule of solid sodium chloride or of a bond between a specific sodium ion 32 BEGINNING CHEMISTRY Figure 4-1 Ball-and-stick model of the sodium chloride structure and a specific chloride ion. The substance NaCl is extremely stable because of: (1) the stable electronic configurations of the ions and (2) the attractions between the oppositely charged ions. The electronic configurations of ions of many main group elements and even a few transition elements can be predicted by assuming that the gain or loss of electrons by an atom results in a configuration analogous to that of a noble gas, which contains an octet of electrons in the valence shell.
Beginning Chemistry by Cullen K.E. (ed.)