By Jarol B. Manheim
Details and effect campaigns are a very cogent instance of the wider phenomenon we now time period strategic political conversation. If we predict of political communique as encompassing the production, distribution, keep watch over, use, processing and results of data as a political source, then we will be able to symbolize strategic political conversation because the practical administration of such info to accomplish a said goal in response to the technological know-how of person, organizational, and governmental decision-making. IICs are roughly centralized, hugely based, systematic, and punctiliously controlled efforts to do exactly that. technique in details and impression Campaigns units out in entire element the underlying assumptions, unifying process, and panoply of strategies of the IIC, either from the point of view of the protagonist who initiates the motion and from that of the objective who needs to shield opposed to it. Jarol Manheim’s forward-looking, vast, and systematic research is a must have source for students and scholars of political and strategic conversation, in addition to practitioners in either the private and non-private sectors.
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Extra resources for Strategy in Information and Influence Campaigns: How Policy Advocates, Social Movements, Insurgent Groups, Corporations, Governments and Others Get What They Want
Regardless of their absolute levels of power, all actors are likely to find themselves in specific situations in which others, including their targets or antagonists, have power greater than or equal to their own. As a result, those who might be targets in one setting may be campaigners in another. Consider, for example, the political competition between two more or less equally powerful package-delivery companies, FedEx and UPS. FedEx began life as an air freight company, and for that reason, its labor relations were governed by the Railway Labor Act (RLA), which extends to airlines.
Decisions that advantage B may actually disadvantage C, and vice versa. This may not be precisely a zero-sum game, in which gains for one side are precisely offset by losses to the other—there could be some shared interest between the two—but in general, these two lesser-powered actors want different outcomes from the same superior actor. 2. In the figure we see three classes of campaigns. The first is the unidirectional campaign that we have discussed earlier—one protagonist, one target. This is the architecture of the most basic IIC, and, for that reason, it is the architecture that we will employ for the greater part of this book.
Courts have ruled that corporations enjoy freedom of speech rights as well as due process protections and freedom from unreasonable search and seizure. But there is virtually no popular support for the notion that corporations are the same as people. The idea violates common sense: Ask anyone on the street if they think a corporation is a person, and most people will say “no”. (Danaher and Mark, 2003: 299) They proposed that accountability activists leverage this discontinuity to redefine the boundaries of proper corporate behavior.
Strategy in Information and Influence Campaigns: How Policy Advocates, Social Movements, Insurgent Groups, Corporations, Governments and Others Get What They Want by Jarol B. Manheim